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Mary Mallon was a "healthy carrier" of an infectious disease, the first ever reported and observed in the New World.

Typhoid Mary

Typhoid MaryMary Mallon was a "healthy carrier" of an infectious disease, the first ever reported and observed in the New World. But, since then, and throughout the first two decades of the 20th century, more than 100 people were added annually to the rolls of "healthy carriers" of typhoid in New-York alone. Moreover, though she infected 47 people with typhoid fever (11 of which were members of one family and their hired help) - only 3 of her inadvertent victims died. Tony Labella, another carrier, caused the death of 5 people (of 122 he had infected).But the nickname of this New York City, fiery Irish immigrant cook - Typhoid Mary - was widely dreaded in the early 1900s. Immune to the disease herself, she was the perfect carrier through her contaminated food. Private investigators hired in 1906 to find the source of the epidemic failed. George Soper, a civil engineer, traced it back to 37-years old Mallon. When he confronted her with his suspicions and asked for samples of her blood and stool, she advanced on him with a carving knife. She similarly lunged with a "long kitchen knife" at policemen who accompanied visiting health officials. Having been found hiding in an areaway closet, under the staircase outside, on a neighbour's property, she was ultimately subdued.Attempts to cure her with Hexamethylenamin, laxatives, Urotropin, and brewer's yeast failed. She was quarantined in 1907 for a period of three years by health officials. She was released in February 1910 when she pledged not to prepare food for others again, to observe some rules of hygiene, to provide periodic fecal samples, and to notify the health department on changes of her address.She sued the Board of Health of the City of New York in 1909. Weekly stool samples she sent to a private lab came consistently clean - while the same stool, analyzed by the department's own labs, turned out to be mostly infected with typhoid bacilli!!!She protested her innocence:"This contention that I am a perpetual menace in the spread of typhoid germs is not true. My own doctors say I have no typhoid germs. I am an innocent human being. I have committed no crime and I am treated like an outcast - a criminal. It is unjust, outrageous, uncivilized. It seems incredible that in a Christian community a defenseless woman can be treated in this manner." She lost the case though, in some respects, she was treated unfairly. Alphonse Cotils, another typhoid carrier, a restaurant and bakery owner who repeatedly violated his pledge not to prepare food for his clientele, got away with a mere reprimand.In 1911, inoculation for typhoid became publicly available - but few bothered as the disease had only a 10% fatality rate.Mallon reneged on her promises to the Health Board and in 1915 - using the pseudonym Ms. Brown - infected mothers and their newborns with typhoid at the Sloane Maternity Hospital in Manhattan where she worked as a cook. Twenty five people caught the fever and two of them died. She spent the next 23 years - until her death in 1938 - with her dog in quarantine at Riverside Hospital in North Brother Island. She became a nurse, hospital help, and a kind of lab technician. After a massive stroke she suffered in 1932, she was transferred to the children's ward.

The Answer To High Drug Prices?

The Answer To High Drug Prices?

Have you ever considered splitting your prescription medications to make them last longer? Many people are looking for ways to control their health care costs, especially since the Kaiser Family Foundation estimates that spending on prescription drugs in the United States rises more than 10 percent a year.Pill splitting is now being recognized as a legitimate way for patients to get the medications they need while saving money. This practice helped the Veterans Administration save almost $50 million in 2003 on prescription drugs. But it is not for everyone or every medication and patients need to know a few basics before they even consider pill splitting as an option.Pill splitting works because drugmakers make a handful of popular medicines available in a choice of strengths for the same price. Currently, 16 medications have been approved for splitting, including Lipitor (used to lower cholesterol), Zoloft (an antidepressant) and Valtrex (an anti-viral). With a doctor's OK, a patient can order his or her medication at twice the needed strength and cut each pill in half. The patient receives half as many pills in each refill but pays half the usual co-payment, for a savings of 50 percent. For example, Lipitor is priced the same in 20-milligram and 40-milligram dosages. A patient may purchase a 40-milligram tablet and then split the medication for his or her daily dosage amount.Drugmakers argue that there could be health risks for people who split pills incorrectly or attempt it with inappropriate drugs. Further, pill splitting is not advised for people who suffer from dementia, severe arthritis or poor vision. In addition, pill splitting may not be a good option for people who take several medications. "Patients should always talk to their physician before making any change to their care regimen," said Dr. Lewis Sandy, UnitedHealthcare's executive vice president of clinical strategies and policy. "Pill splitting can be a useful tool to save money, especially if you have to take a prescription drug for a long time. But not all pills can be safely split, and this practice is not appropriate for everyone." One company, UnitedHealthcare, recently launched the second phase of its Half Tablet Program, which offers free pill splitters to members taking medications approved for splitting. The program requires physician approval for enrollment.The following steps should always be followed when considering pill splitting:1. Consult your physician when considering any changes to your health care. Pill splitting can only be done with your doctor's approval.2. Make sure your physician knows about all medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. It is important for the doctor to know your entire medical history before making recommendations on your prescription drugs.3. Review the approved list of medications for pill splitting with your doctor to ensure that your medication is included.4. Always use a pill splitter to cut medications in half and make sure the medication fits securely in the device. Never attempt to cut a pill with a knife, scissors or anything else.5. Tell your doctor about any changes in your health status that may make it difficult for you to split your medications. He or she may decide with you that returning to whole pills is the best option.

An Udderly Ridiculous Home Remedy

An Udderly Ridiculous Home Remedy

Home Remedies - Facts or Quacks?Thats what I recently asked myself. Myths and legends often have their basis in a grain of truth. So I wondered if home remedies, alternative treatments, and folklore cures might also be based on truth. A little research provided these astonishing results!Itching For A CureEdward Jenner is widely credited as the father of the smallpox vaccination. However, twenty years earlier in 1774, a quick-thinking English farmer named Benjamin Jesty saved his family from smallpox using some pretty unorthodox methods.Waiting Until The Cows Come HomeIn 1774 the highly infectious and deadly smallpox disease was epidemic. Farmer Jesty, immune to the disease because he had survived it in childhood, feared for the lives of his pregnant wife and children. Many country folk knew that people who had previously caught the milder disease of cowpox from an infected cow did not catch the normally-fatal smallpox disease.A Desperate PlanFrantic to find a solution before his family caught the disease, Jesty took his family to a nearby farm where cows were infected with cowpox. He injected his family with diseased cowpox cells from the cows. Because vacca is Latin for cow, this procedure later became known as vaccination.This Isnt BullThe mild cowpox disease came and went in the children. His pregnant wife had complications and required the aid of the local doctor. His family did not catch the deadly smallpox disease, but word leaked out. Poor Jesty was ridiculed by his neighbors, who expected his family to turn into cows, or at least grow horns!Edward Jenner was a tireless crusader in promoting the benefits of smallpox vaccination. However, it was a desperate farmer who used his quick wit and country folklore to save his family 20 years earlier.Regardless of whom history credits, this home remedy definitely rates as a fact rather than a quack!If you liked this home remedy information, you can find more through the resources shown below. Home remedies can be effective, and may save you time and money.

Eye Health And Extended Wear Contact Lenses

Eye Health And Extended Wear Contact Lenses

An ever growing number of people who wear contact lenses are turning to using extended wear contact lenses. There are many benefits to be realized through the use of extended wear contact lenses. Perhaps the greatest benefit to be realized from the use extended wear contact lenses is found in the fact that they are very, very convenient. In reality, if a person so desired, he or she could plop a pair of extended wear contact lenses into his or her eyes and basically forget about them for thirty days.In reality, a person who elects to use extended wear contact lenses needs to be a bit more at attentive to his or her eyes. In point of fact, merely plopping lenses into ones eyes and then forgetting about them for several weeks really is not the best of all possible practices.Many eye doctors actually recommend removing even extended wear lenses from a persons eyes on a daily basis for cleaning. Even with extended wear lenses, dirt and debris accumulate on the lenses in a very short period of time. Despite the fact that extended wear lenses are designed to remain in place for longer periods of time, this does not mean that dirt and debris accumulation will not occur at least on some level.A good number of extended wear contact lens users actually report greater eye comfort when they do remove their lenses for cleaning on a daily basis. (Some consumers report that that are able to use a specific pair of extended wear contact lenses for an extended period of time through a routine that include daily cleaning of the lenses.Some eye doctors are a bit more drastic in their recommendations regarding extended wear lenses. These docs contend that even extended wear lenses should not be work when a person intends to sleep for more than several hours. In other words, these eye doctors literally are suggesting and recommending that extended wear lenses should removed each and every night -- which, of course, rather defeats the purpose of using extended wear lenses in the first instance.In the final analysis, when it comes to more traditional or extended wear lenses, it is important to consult with a qualified eye doctor to determine what type of lens will best suit your particular needs. No matter what type of contact lens you elect to utilize, you will need to make sure that you have regular eye examinations and that you maintain your lenses properly through cleaning on a regular basis.

Living With Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term describing over 100 different conditions that cause pain, stiffness and (often) inflammation in one or more joints. Everyone with arthritis can benefit from eating a healthy well balanced diet.There is no special diet or 'miracle food' that cures arthritis, but some conditions may be helped by avoiding or including certain foods. For example, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis seem to respond to an increased dietary intake of fish oils, while gout benefits from avoidance of alcohol and offal meats.Always seek the advice of your doctor or dietitian before changing your diet in an attempt to treat arthritis. You may be restricting your food intake unnecessarily, or overdosing on products (such as mineral supplements) that may have no impact on your condition at all.General dietary recommendations for a person with arthritis include: eat a well balanced diet, avoid crash dieting or fasting, increase dietary calcium to reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life, drink plenty of non-alcoholic fluids, keep your weight within the normal range, by reducing the amount of dietary fats you consume.Uric acid is a waste product that is normally excreted from the body in urine. Gout is a type of arthritis characterised by the build-up of uric acid in the joints (such as the big toe), which causes inflammation and pain.Some of the dietary recommendations that may help to ease the symptoms of gout include: restrict or avoid alcohol, restrict or avoid offal meats, such as liver, kidneys and brains,restrict or avoid shellfish and anchovies, drink plenty of non-alcoholic fluids, make sure you don't overeat on a regular basis, be sure to take your time when eating.Fish oils that contain omega-3 fatty acids have been found, in various studies, to help reduce the inflammation associated with some sorts of arthritis. These forms of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, are characterised by inflammation.The "fish oil" seems to work by reducing the number of inflammatory 'messenger' molecules made by the body's immune system. There may be additional benefits to eating fish once or twice every week - researchers from around the world have discovered that the regular consumption of fish can reduce the risk of diseases ranging from childhood asthma to prostate cancer.Being overweight does affect people with arthritis. Joints affected by arthritis are already under strain. If you are overweight or obese, the extra load on your joints may be exacerbating your symptoms, especially if your affected joints include those of the hip, knee or spine. There is also a clear link between being overweight and an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis.To lose excess weight, you must be active, but this can be difficult for people with arthritis due to pain or stiffness. See your doctor, dietitian or health professional for information and advice. Weight reduction strategies may include: switch to a diet that is high in nutrition, while low in kilojoules, experiment with different sorts of activities - for example, it may be possible to enjoy swimming or some kinds of low impact exercises, limit your exercise activities to unaffected joints - for example, if your hands are affected, you may be able to comfortably ride on a stationary bicycle.There is no substantial scientific evidence that would support a person with arthritis avoiding particular foods, unless that person has specifically shown intolerance to them (the exception is gout). However, as research reveals more connections between diet and health, it is possible that stronger connections between particular foods and arthritis may emerge.With some foods - such as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants and peppers - there is much anecdotal evidence (stories about individuals), but again there is no strong scientific evidence.If you think a particular food may aggravate your arthritis, it can be useful to keep a food diary.After a month, you may have some idea about which food could be provoking symptoms. You could then try eliminating that food from your diet for two weeks to see what happens. Don't cut out a whole food category, and make sure you are getting the vitamins and minerals that this food provides from other sources. It is important to let your doctor know that you are doing this.Discover treatment options, read more about arthroscopic knee, severe knee arthritis allergies to pain medication, artificial knee and look at arthroscopic knee surgery pictures.

A Day At The Doctor's Office

Do you ever wonder when you go to the doctor each time the receptionist ask you for your insurance card? I sure do. I went to the same doctor for 10 years seems they would know me by now or have made a copy of my insurance card. Have you ever read the sign that says payment due when services rendered, just to hear the lady ask you for your co-payment before you've even had the chance to sit down? Or how about after sitting for a long time in the waiting room, they call you back just to take your blood pressure than send you back out in the waiting room again. Or they call you back just to have you wait in another area. I have always felt this was a tactic to make you feel like your getting somewhere when your really not. How about while waiting, your Doctor happens to see you, and he does all he can do not to make eye contact with you, or if you do they act like your a perfect stranger. How about that study I heard where the average time actually spent with the doctor is about three minutes. I then have to ask myself the question, why am I waiting so long in the waiting room. Or how about the one when the pharmaceutical rep just walks in asking for the Doctor and they tell them to come on back. I guess those free game tickets, or the free day at the spa is really more important than my health. These are just some of the mysteries I have never figured out when going to the doctor.Those days are history. Knowing what medications I need each month, knowing already my diagnosis, obtaining prescription medications online is the wave of the future. If I need to get my pain medication, I have a consultation with a U.S Physician. I receive a 90 day supply of pain medication. You get the initial scipt filled, plus two refills which can be filled on the 25th day. Same goes for my treatment of my anxiety. All medications are written by U.S Physicians and filled by U.S. Pharmacies. Such medications as Hydrocodone, Vicodin, Lortab, Xanax are available. When receiving other non controlled medicatons for my migraine headaches, high cholestoral, ocassional depression, and a few other meds, I receive a free conslultation from a U.S. Physician and filled again by a U.S. Pharmacy. These medications are shipped usually by overnight delivery. With this type of service available, more and more people are turning to the internet for their medication needs. Why wait hours in a doctors office, why pay the outrageous office visit fees, why feel treated like a number and not a person, when you can get the meds you need delivered to your door at a great low price. With so many people losing their healthcare benefits, losing their insurance, more people will be getting their medication online. So days at the doctors office to get your prescriptions are numbered. I hope this article has given you

Summary

Mary Mallon was a "healthy carrier" of an infectious disease, the first ever reported and observed in the New World.